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ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE IN CHUKOTKA

Об изменениях климата  делится коренная жительница  Виктория Викторовна Кавры,
научный руководитель отдела изучения и развития языков Чукотки АНО «Чукотский научный арктический центр».

   The climate of Chukotka is very harsh.  Especially strong winds are raging in the eastern regions, snow blizzard sometimes lasts for many days in a row. Summer is very short, rainy and cold, in some places the snow does not even have time to melt. Permafrost lies everywhere and starts very shallow from the surface. The climate features of Chukotka are due to its location at the extreme northeastern tip of Eurasia - in the zone of influence of two oceans, with a complex atmospheric circulation that differs significantly in warm and cold seasons.  That's why the climate is here harsh, subarctic, on the coasts — marine, in the interior — continental. The duration of winter is up to 10 months. The average temperature in January is from -15 °C to -39 °C, in July — from +5 °C to +10 °C.

  In recent years, indigenous people have noticed strong changes in the climate. It got warmer. From July to September, southerly winds. In October, the rivers do not freeze yet, and they used to freeze at this time. The water level has risen. Where before it was possible to pass – now there is water. Previously, it was possible to drive through the lagoon by all-terrain vehicle, but now only by boat. For the last five years, southerly winds have prevailed, the ice is tearing off, there is no ice near the shore. Even in January there are thaws with rains. Most people in Chukotka does not remember this before and does not notice any special changes in mammals. Solitary walruses stay longer. The birds arrive at the same time as before. But if they arrived earlier, and spring has not really begun yet, there were frosts and blizzards, and many birds died, now half of the tundra has already melted by their arrival. Birds fly away later than a few years ago. There were more berries. Everywhere the ice that used to last all year round is melting.

Преподаватель Чукотского многопрофильного колледжа  Наталья Петровна Радунович поделилась своими наблюдениями
по изменению климата Чукотки.

Photo: https://nauka.tass.ru/nauka/

ABOUT THE WEATHER IN OCTOBER-NOVEMBER 2006.

Nikolai Ivanovich Nuvano (1937-2007) with his son Yuri. L. Pautov, 1976. © V. Nuvano Archive

  The translation of N. Nuvano's notes from November 11, 2006 from Chukchi into Russian was made by his son, Vladislav Nuvano. For the convenience of reading, V. Nuvano divided the Chukchi text and its translation into five parts, and also provided explanations in parentheses for the Russian reader. You will see English translation instead of Russian.

L. Bogoslovskaya

ChukchiEnglish
1.Здравствуйте ымылъоторе.Мурык итыкевын еп мечинкы ылъыл гатвален. Эллы йарат нык’итыэн. Ытръэч н’аргынен гинэн-ым игыр тан’алван’ нъэлгъи. Этъым раггыпы н’ъоркын. Юрэк’-ым этъопэл торган лыги. Йарат игыр кытъэмыръалэйвинен’ томгатэ гырголэн. К’ынур вэнгъи нутэнут.Hello everyone. Now we have normal snow so far. The snow has not frozen much yet (an ice crust has not formed). But still, the weather, especially now, has become completely different. I don't know why this is happening. Maybe you know better the reasons why this is so. All sorts of different things (in excellent shape) are now walking on top (planes, rockets, etc.). As if the heavens have opened.
2К’эйвэ эвын тэлэнеп айвачгыпы ныгтыйгатын’ок’эн. Эвын номръок’эн. Эквырга тэлэнъеп эллы йарат к’онпы. Йарат игыр эмк’ын гиик кытомръоркын ноябрик. Кэйвэ ноябрь турининик, октябрь талпын’н’ок эвын тэлэнеп номръок’эн. К’элук’ъым ынн’эномык кытэпат нъайн’ан’ок’энат. Ытри айн’ама к’онпы номатк’эн. Ынкъам нынны ноябрэн – вэлкытэплё. К’элук’ нывэломръок’эн.However, even before the wind began to blow from the leeward (shadow) side (from the south). It was getting warm anyway. But still, it wasn't always for a long time. Now in November it gets very warm every year. However, even earlier, when November only appeared, and October disappeared, it still became warmer. Because in this month, the rams began the rut. It was always warm at this time. Therefore, the name of November is вэлкытэплё - velkytaple (if you break the word into semantic parts and translate it, it will literally be "rotten, ram, penis"). Because it becomes sour-warm (slushy).
3Эквырга нэкэм игыр тымн’алголак’ мэн’инъйлгык эвыр рылыръуркын, тытэ ромръоркын, кытйгын айвачгыпы райоа. Итыкэвын эвын тэлэнъеп нэкэм ан’к’ачормын’кач ымлъалъан’эт эвыр мэн’инйилгык номръок’эн, нылыръук’ын итык лъэлъэн’кы. Эквырга лыгэмк’улин. Эквырга игыр н’аргынен алван’нъэлгъи.Now there is no difference in which month it may rain, or it will get warm, or the wind will blow from the "shadow" (south) side. In fact, it was like this before, especially near the sea, in winter it could rain in any month. But it was rare. And now the space has become completely different.
4Н’утын гиик тын’эргэрн’итык н’елвыльык. Нутэвъэри кырыткынык ганолъалэнат Кылвылавтынкач. 9 октября пинэръугъи. Мытлынча ылон’этэ пинэтык. Лэгэн-ым к’унече 40 см. Эвыр яврэн мачраглыгъэ ылъыл, этъым 5-7 см. Ноябрь турининик нэмэ гъоптэнарлэн, этым 30 см. Эквырга н’ан эвын пэтлэ нымач раглыкэн. Н’енку гамач тын’ъэлэлын, эквырга нутгыкин этым 1 см. Ымылъэты н’ирэн элэтык этым 65 см гатвалэн. Эвыр н’эгчику валъыморэ, энанкэн мачкыргылъо нытвакэн.This year I spent the autumn in the herd. Their main summer encanpment was at the sources of Nutavakhli near Mount Kilvylevyt. On October 9, snow fell and it rained for 5 days. During these days, about 40 cm of snow fell. After a while, he sits down somewhere 5-7 cm. In early November, snow fell again up to 30 cm. But later I got a little more hooked. Then there was a little ice, but weak, easily broke, about 1 cm. For two snowfalls together it was about 65 cm. Again, since we are in the mountains, then the snow is drier.
59 ноября Варэнык тынъэлык. Мач к’онпы номатк’эн, к’онпы нъэк’эйгэтк’ын. Нак’ам этлы ныпин’этылъэтын. Ам оматылъатын вээм Варэнкэн панэна эергытколъын. Вездехода, трактора акаэрын. Этым 15 см к’ылъхын тынтын. Кэйвэ нотк’эн вээм эвын к’онпы эёргытколъын, нэкэм рыягнавкы. Эквырга игыр йарат к’онпы оматылъаркын. Итыкэвын н’утку умкылыку нэмыкэй кыргылъан. Ынанкэн мэчнык’ик’ин мурыгнотайпы курык ылъыл, этъым 90 см. Эквырга элы эннаны нытваан. Ывын кытыйга мэнк’о ныттук’ин. Нан морык’анкач эвыр айвачгыпы йок варээнынкачайты найк’алэлы рэлгийкэвыркын. Эвырым кэралгык – Автавамынкачагты урэк’анъявкалэллы тэн’унмык рэйкэвыркын. Туръылэтык октябрик, нан тыкэлиэн 40 см к’илъын ылъыл. Кылвылэвыт-ым нуйэтк’ин. Тэн’уйн’э ылке гатвалэн. Виин ратан.On November 9th I arrived in Vaegi. It was warm all the time, it was always cloudy, but it didn't always snow either. Due to the fact that it was always warm, the river in Vaegi (Main) has not yet completely frozen, there are polynyas (unfrozen patch of water in the ice). All-terrain vehicle, tractor will not pass. In some places, the ice may be 15 cm thick. However, the river has always been with polynyas, especially in front of the village. But now it is always (abnormally compared to previous years) warm. And the snow in the forest is deeper than ours, in some places it reaches up to 90 cm. But it is not necessary that it is this thickness. Anyway, somewhere the snow is blown away by the wind. Here we have (the upper reaches of the Nuteveri, on the map – Nutavakhli), if the wind blows from the south-east towards the Vaegi down the slope, the wind develops a high speed. And if the "northerner" blows, then down the long decays in the direction of Avtavaam, the wind will greatly "accelerate". When the first snow fell in October, I wrote that the thickness of the snow was 40 cm, and Mount Kilvylevyt was getting dark all over. I was left without snow at all. That's enough for now.
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