Means of transportation of the Nanai people

The main means of transportation of the Nanay people were boats of several types in the summer: dugout, made of birch bark, plank and frame boats. The most ancient are onnimagda and utungu carved out of a whole tree. The utungu-type boat is known among different groups of Nanai in two varieties: with a pointed bow and stern for one person and with a blunt stern for two. The Utungu was used as a light boat in the hunting industry. Rowed with a two-bladed oar alternately from the port and starboard sides. Rising upstream, they used a pole. Onnimagda boats were used to transport people and family property. Its nose is spatulate, raised above the surface of the water. When moving, he lays down on the wave and extinguishes it.

Composite flat-bottomed boat of the Amur type ogda, temchien became widespread. Sharp-nosed ones were made from three boards, with a blunt stern – from six, in this case it had a surface boardwalk. The sides are fixed on wooden pegs at an obtuse angle to the bottom. The joints are caulked with moss or nettle fiber and sealed from the inside with planks. On flat-bottomed boats, they moved, as well as on dugouts, with the help of a pole, large and small oars with a wide figured blade.

In accordance with the gender and age division of labor, the Nanai people usually rowed women or young people. The man guided the boat in the right direction and caught fish. Depending on the purpose ogda could have one rower or more. Large boats for 12 pairs of rowers are known. In an ordinary boat, rowers' seats were located closer to the bow, after the first strut there was a device for a mast with a sail, the rest was intended for cargo and passengers. Boats were once used as a means of transportation on large rivers. They are well suited for swimming in rough seas. During long trips, a semi-cylindrical shelter was built at the stern or in the middle of the boat.

The Nanai called frame boats dyai, Russians call them omorochki. Their design was very simple. The main frame was assembled from light strong slats. The ends were pointed and curved upward. The bottom, bow and stern parts were pasted over with a birch bark cloth. They moved with the help of a pole, one or two small oars. If necessary, a fisherman or hunter could take the dyai on his shoulder and move to another river system.

The Nanai skied without sticks in winter, using the tunepun bow staff. One end of it had a fork and served as a stand for firing a gun, and the other ended with a spatula, with which the skis were cleaned. There are two types of skis: soxilta and kungilte. Skis were made from larch, oak, elm, birch, and fir. The front edge of the skis is slightly bent upward, pointed or had a round head. In the middle of the skis, a piece of birch bark was attached, on which the foot was placed. The mount consisted of two loops. The sliding part of the soxylt skis was glued with camus. Kungilte walked in the spring on the ice crust.

Hand, dog, and reindeer sleds were used to transport heavy loads. The hand sled had an irapun handle, with which the hunter controlled the sled, and the dog helped to pull it. The Nanai people know the straight-dust sled in two versions: with one (front) and with two (front and rear) arches. The women's cargo sled had the same design, but differed in height and width.

The Gorin, Kura and Urmi Nanai people had a small number of reindeer, which they used as draught animals. They had a reindeer sled Ooron Tokini, which is similar in design to the Evenk sleds. The Ussuri and Sungari Nanai used the horse under the saddle and for transporting goods in packs.

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