Eynes Lilia Ivanovna, bone carver, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Anady
Обработка кожи и меха – одно из древнейших ремесел коренного населения Чукотки. Чукотские женщины до настоящего времени умело используют кожу и мех для шитья и украшения одежды, обуви, для изготовления настенных ковриков, всевозможных сумок, украшений и многих других предметов. Изготовление изделий из кожи и их декорирование – трудоемкая работа, требующая художественного вкуса и высокого мастерства, глубоких знаний.
The main material for the manufacture of leather and fur products was and still is the skins of reinreindeer and marine animals (seal, walrus). Craftswomen of Chukotka were able to perfectly process various types of hides, taking into account the peculiarities of their structure, density, elasticity. They painted the treated leather with an infusion of alder bark, sometimes used mineral dyes, smoked the skin over the fire, which not only gave them a beautiful shade, but also enhanced their waterproof properties.
Special tools and equipment were used for processing leather and fur and decorating things made of them: cutting boards, boards for softening and dressing hides, scrapers (stone and metal), furrier's knives, needles of various sizes (including two-sided and three-sided), thimbles (bone and metal).
Ways to decorate leather products were diverse. They depended on the purpose of the subject and the characteristics of the material. Carefully decorated with clothing and items associated with the holidays. Finishing materials used in the artistic design of products were animal skins with beautiful fluffy fur (foxes, wolverines, dogs), reindeer hair under the neck, tendon threads made from the back and leg veins of reindeer, beads (porcelain and glass).
Среди художественных приемов декорирования одежды – вышивка подшейным волосом оленя. Чукчи использовали для этого пучки из белых волос оленя. Пучок прихватывали к основе стежками ниток. При этом использовались различные виды накладных швов (“простой шов”, “жгутик”, “зигзаг”). Combining the seams, the craftsmen made straight and curved ornaments of different textures, imitated the play of light and shadow.
One of the unique methods of decorating the products of Northern craftswomen is fur mosaic. It is a combination of contrasting color pieces of fur, which are cut in the form of stripes, rhombuses, triangles, circles and other shapes. Mosaics decorated clothes, shoes, hats, bags.
Распространенный прием декорирования – аппликация – наложение одного материала на другой. Практиковалось три типа аппликации: кожей по коже, ме¬хом по коже и кожей по меху. Аппликационные детали в виде различных геомет¬рических фигур вырезались обычно из белой мандарки (нерпичьей шкуры с удаленным волосяным покровом).
Другой вид декорирования – продержка ремешков через прорези в коже. Прорези располагали на одинаковом расстоянии друг от друга, и продернутый в них ремешок, контрастируя по цвету с основным материалом, образовывал орнамент из равномерно повторяющихся миниатюрных прямоугольников.
Embossed decorative stitching was usually used in the manufacture of shoes. Such a seam, connecting the upper part of the fur torbasa (soft boots made of reindeer skins) with the sole, was both a method of fastening and a form of decoration. Beaded jewelry is often a pendant attached to a kitchenette. Beads decorate the hems of kitchens, shoes, hats, belts, all kinds of pendants, handbags, wallets.
In recent decades, leather painting has spread among the peoples of the Far North-East. Its authors are often famous bone engravers. Using some techniques of walrus tusk engraving in leather painting, craftsmen develop them in relation to new techniques and new materials. Ornamental panels are usually decorated with painting on leather.
Currently, in every Chukotka village there are craftswomen who are excellent at the techniques of artistic processing of leather and fur. The names of many craftswomen are known far beyond Chukotka. The products of the best craftswomen of Chukotka are works of high art. They are exhibited in museums, at all-Russian and international exhibitions. The traditions associated with this type of artistic craft continue to live on. In many schools of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, classes are held on sewing traditional clothes, making all kinds of items from beads, fur, and leather. In the artistic processing of hard materials, bone processing has reached the greatest perfection (for more details see: p. 686-716).
The Chukchi bone-carving art received the highest recognition in the 1970s, when the masters I. Seigutegin, G. Tynatval and V. Emkul were awarded the State Prize of the Russian SFSR named after I.E. Repin (1976), and Tukkay, E. Yanku, V. Emkul and I. Seigutegin received the honorary title of Honored Artist of the Russian SFSR.
In recent years, in the art of engraving on a walrus tusk and sculptural carving, more attention has been paid to the national life of the Chukchi, to the display of its ethnographic features. A successful search for decorative techniques in solving plot compositions is underway. And the art of engraving itself has grown immeasurably, the drawing has become more precise and expressive (Bronstein, Shirokov, 2008; Tishkov, 2008).
E. P. Batyanova, I. S. Vdovin, S. F. Karabanova, N. V. Kocheshkov, V. A. Lytkin, V. A. Turaev
(from the book “Peoples of the North-East of Siberia”)
The works of the bone carver Lilia Ivanovna Eynes
(Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Anadyr):