Dolgan language is one of the Turkic languages. Distributed in the south and southeast (former Dudinsky and Khatangsky districts) of the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) municipal district of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of Russia, as well as in the Anabarsky ulus of Yakutia.
The Dolgan language was considered a dialect of the Yakut language. At present, it is defined as an independent language, close to Yakut. Belongs to the Turkic group of the Altai language family. It has Norilsk, Pyasin, Avam, Khatanga and Popigai dialects.
The Dolgan language (Dulgaan tila, Haka tila, Dolgan-Haka tila) refers to the dialect of the Yakut language of the Turkic group of the Altaic family (or the Dolgan language of the Yakut subgroup of the Uighur-Oguz group of Turkic languages).
The Dolgans of the Krasnoyarsk Territory have a widespread Russian language, their native speech remains at the everyday level. It is widespread, mainly in the eastern and central part of the Taimyr Peninsula along the Khatanga rivers (starting from the Khatanga Bay), Popigai, Hitta, in the Dudin region (administrative districts of Khatanga and Dudinsky), as well as in the Anabar ulus of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
Modern Dolgan speech remains generally Yakut, largely contains elements of the languages of ethnic groups that made up the new nation, which is reflected in the vocabulary. For a long time, the language discrepancies between the Dolgans and the Yakuts did not go beyond the differences that exist between the Yakuts of central and northern Yakutia. The Dolgan language, conditioned by the Tungus-Russian influence, developed in interaction with several ethnic groups. On the other hand, there is a noticeable commonality with the dialects of the northern Yakuts, which developed under similar extralinguistic conditions. The Dolgan language was based on the speech of the Yakut groups, which from the 17th century and in subsequent centuries they moved north from the center of Yakutia.
In 1933, a primer was published in the Yakut language, adapted for the Dolgan school. In 1961, short Dolgan texts were published in the newspaper "Soviet Taimyr". In 1973, the first book in the Dolgan language was published - a collection of poems by Ogdo Aksenova. This collection used the Russian alphabet with additional letters Дь дь, Һ һ, Ңң, Нь нь, Ө ө, Ү ү. In 1981 the first Dolgan primer was published, the authors of which were E. E. Aksenova, A. A. Barbolina, V. N. Parfiriev. In 1984 E.E. Aksenova and A.A. Barbolina published the second Dolgan primer.
The alphabet of the first Dolgan primers was as follows:
А а, Б б, В в, Г г, Д д, Дь дь, Е е, Ё ё, Ж ж,
З з, И и, Иэ иэ, Й й, К к, Л л, М м, Н н,
Ңң, Ңь ңь, О о, Ө ө, П п, Р р, С с, Т т, У у,
Уо уо, Ү ү, Үө үө, Ф ф, Х х, Һ һ, Ц ц, Ч ч, Ш ш,
Щ щ, Ъ ъ, Ы ы, Ыа ыа, Ь ь, Э э, Ю ю, Я я.
Modern Dolgan alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж
З з И и Й й К к Һ һ Л л М м Н н
Ңң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ү ү Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ
Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
Dolgan writing based on the Russian alphabet was officially adopted in the late 1970s. Currently, educational and methodological literature is being created on teaching the Dolgan language.
Textbooks, programs, dictionaries and other educational publications were prepared by E.E. Aksenova, A.A. Barbolina, V.N. Parfirev, M.I. Popova, N.P. Beltyukova, N.M. Artemiev, A.A. Petrov and others. Materials for the newspaper "Taimyr" are published in the Dolgan language, broadcasts of the Dudin radio center are made.