The Dolgans are a small tribal group that speaks a special dialect of the Yakut language. They live in the eastern part of the Taimyr National District, in the territory located between the Yenisei River, Khatanga and Anabar; limited in the north by the North Polar Sea, in the south by the Hetoy River. The specified area covers an area of 110,000 sq.km. One of the first researchers of Dolgan ethnography was V.S. Ivanov and the ethnographer-Siberian scientist A.A. Popov. Dolgans are the northernmost Turkic-speaking people (self-name: Dulgaan, Haka, tya kiһite). Currently, they live in several villages, located mainly in the Dudinsky and Khatangsky regions of the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenetsky) Autonomous District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Farming methods: reindeer husbandry, hunting, fishing with a nomadic lifestyle. Dolgans are among the least studied Siberian native peoples, their culture, which has preserved many archaic features of ancient nomadic reindeer herders, is still one of the blank spots on the ethnographic map of Siberia. Not only the origin and ethnic history of the Dolgans, but also the traditional culture have not been sufficiently studied. Until now, scientists argue about the originality of the Dolgan culture and language, the problems of ethnic identification of the Dolgans have not yet been resolved. In the national literature, the opinion has been established that the Dolgans are an ethnos that formed relatively late as a result of the merger of separate groups of northern reindeer herders - nomads of Tungus origin, local Evenks and the so-called Zatundrapeasants. However, it should be noted that the question of the origin of the Dolgans still remains completely unresolved. Linguists attribute the Dolgan language to the Yakut subgroup of the Uighur-Oguz group of Turkic languages of the Altaiс linguistic community. The Dolgan language clearly characterizes the ethnicity of its speakers. There is a peculiar synthesis of the Yakut language with its relict elements of Turkic and Mongolian origin, borrowed words of the Tungus-Manchu languages, as well as Siberian dialectal Russianism [Savvinov, 2005, p. 7].
The number of people is 6945 according to the census of recent years. Dolgan writing based on the Russian alphabet was officially adopted in the late 1970s, the first book was published in 1973, the Dolgan primer was approved only in the mid-1980s and was published in 1981 [Polar Encyclopedia. The Arctic is my home. 2001, p-27].
Этнографы Б.О.Долгих, Н.С. Гурвич, Ф.М. Зыков, вслед за ними М.Н. Борисов, А.В. Мигалкин и другие сошлись в том, что «долгане – это субэтнос народа саха (якутов), который произошел в результате смешивания саха и эвенкийского племени долган в низовьях Енисея» [Анабарский улус. История. Культура. Фольклор. 2005, с – 66].
A description of the population of the Khatanga of the Taimyr District in the middle of the 19th century was made by Middendorf and published in 1878 in "A Journey to the North and East of Siberia". Among the inhabitants of this region, he named Dolgans, Tungus and Yakuts. Of his clothes, Middendorf mentioned sheepskin coats made of dark deer skins. Middendorf's remarks about the Dolgan beliefs are interesting. He writes that the travelers are unanimous in the opinion that this nation has “no idea of the Christian religion,” although half of them are baptized [Ibid, 2005, p-73
Taimyr is the northernmost peninsula of mainland Eurasia, washed by the Laptev and Kara seas. The aborigines of Taimyr (Dolgans, Nenets, Evenks, Ngasans, Enets), despite their low number, are carriers of unique ethnic cultures, living traditions and endangered languages. Now the fate of the indigenous minorities of the North - the bearers of the most fragile Arctic civilization - causes serious concern associated with the problems of ethnic survival and preservation [Savvinov, 2005, p. nine].
Описуемый обряд долганов Красноярского края и Анабарского улуса проведена 23 июня 2018г.в местности Үс Хатыҥ где находится отдельная туһулгэ КМНС. В этот же день проводился ыһыах народа Саха. Описание площадки: туһулгэ состоит из 5 жилищ – ураһа , 2 черкана – дерев.столб, которая украшена саламой, есть спец. отведенное место для разведения огня с 3-мя священными салонами т.е. 3 дерев.палки стоят ввиде ураьа.
Женщины – женская парка из сукна черного цвета украшенная вышивкой бисером, полосками разноцветной ткани и меха. Женская одежда дополняется металлическими подвесками, звенящими колокольчиками. На спине шубы прикрепляется украшение ьээлбуур в виде двух ниспадающих параллельных полосок, орнаментированных пластинками и бусами. Летние нагрудники сшитые из ровдуги или сукна. Имеет форму прямоугольника, суживающего к верху с полукруглым вырезом для шеи. Женщины на голове в платках, на ногах торбаза из ровдуги. Невесту наряжают в одежду белого цвета.
Men - a biechee - caftan made of black cloth, decorated with stripes of colored fabric with beads on the sides. Headwear - men's chukuraa hoods made of cloth. The hood insert is decorated with multicolor beaded trim in several rows.
1. Rite of cleansing the area
The woman feeds and smears the sacred cherkans with reindeer fat, then the man smears the second cherkan - wooden pillar. The ritual area is purified with smoke. Men stand on the right side and women on the left. Then the woman, as the keeper of the hearth, kindles a sacred fire over the three salons. Then he treats the spirit of fire and says the words - algys: "Beyeber aattagan-kerdeen eppaeppin, kergemmin harystaa, sydyk suolu yyan bier, etenne olorung, dyolloohtuk olorung."
Having fed the sacred fire, the man gives the woman a pikestaff - turul mas.
The man and the woman sit on their knees. Then everyone sits on their knees. Then the woman says blessing: «Samyyrga saigaatyn, salaibyt sirbitin, үөre sirdaatyn ustalaah toyon hallaan, chyychaakhtaakh hallaantan wasyttan byyһaatyn, k уn uota үyege, sydyk kүnү kөrdөrdүn, algaanynaynahy».
(The sound "k" in the Dolgan dialect is pronounced as "g", and the letter "c" as "b").
2. The ceremony of dressing the Dolgan bride
The Dolgan bride's clothes are white from head to toe. Parka of white cloth, which symbolizes the sacred white swan.
The ceremony is associated with the image of Aiyy. The appearance of man is associated with the divine will of Aiyy. Metal decoration - denotes light, and shine - heavenly bodies, as a reminder of the continuous connection between the upper and middle world. Then they put on a belt that symbolizes that the woman is ready for marriage since there is metal in the back. ayeelbuur shows the way: one is the way of the spouse and the other is the way of the wife.
Then they put on a bastitsa, the rim covers the woman's frontal part, the central round part of the rim means the sun. Then they put on a scarf, the scarf must necessarily cover the head. The woman was always given a cane. Cane Nori - means that the woman is married. The sacred cane Nori is a symbol of the sacred mother of the universe. At the end of the cane there is a figure of a bird (duck or goose). Mother bird of the universe. Sacred Neyaji is the patroness of women. In the beginning a girl walks, then in the process all the rest of girls. All the girls take turns holding a wooden cane on which a fox skin hangs. The bride approaches the patroness of women, then the rest of the girls.
3. Rite of worshipping water spirits.
For this ceremony, dough cakes are prepared in advance to feed the spirit of water. In the process, everyone follows the woman to the river. Dough cakes with holes in the form of a roll are thrown into the water. Deepening the hole of the dough is done for happiness to enter. Then they dance Heiro's round dance.
Rite of worship to the Spirit of the hunt
The man made a fire, then he was brought a wooden figure of Bayanay.
The man says algys: “Toyon ekekenim, bai barylaah Bayanai, kөtur kynattaakhkhyttan, kөmүs khatyryktaakhhyttan, tuundara byyagyttan
Kөrdөһөbүt-aattaһabyt, kүlүm allayyҥ! Oooooo! "
Then give him wild deer meat. The wooden figure of Bayanay is fed by this meat. Then he treats the assembled people.
Затем следующий обряд это – «Стреляют для удачи специально жертвенного оленя». В начале стреляет из лука алгысчыт в имитированную фигуру оленя из тальника. Потом все мужчины по очереди стреляют из лука жертвенного оленя. Потом девушки под звон бубена – дуҥур танцуют танец оленя
Author: Sivtseva Olga Mikhailovna