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NIMKAN AS A GENRE OF EVEN FOLKLORE

НИМКАННИ ЖАНРАННИ ЭВЕДИ ФОЛЬКЛОРАН

  Нимкан Nimkan is a genre of oral folk art of the Evens. The nimkans reflect the history, culture, and worldview of the Evens. The concept of "nimkan" includes fairy tales of various types: ikelken nimkan - a fairy tale with songs, which tells about magical and heroic events, dialogues between characters take place in the form of a song, urumkun nimkan - short fairy tales, which include tales about animals, household, borrowed. The northern scholar Novikova K.A. believes that the nimkan genre includes fairy tales, ancient epic narratives, similar in content to Russian epics. Animal tales usually have a number of simple plots. Some of these tales are cumulative in their structure.

  The composition of cumulative fairy tales: exposition, cumulation, finale. The exposition consists of a simple event or an ordinary life situation. Exposure is followed by cumulation (chain). In cumulative fairy tales, all actions are developed or repeated in the course of the plot. Cumulative fairy tales of different peoples have a similar structure.

  Нимкан – идлэ ӈонмирни очялалкан эвэды жанра. Нимкандула эвэсэл дюлэп биниттэн ичукэптэн.   Нимкандула нимкан икэн бисни, ньаан урумкун нимкан. Икэникэн нимкандула бисни мяӈчивни ӈэннэк (кусир, эсчимэчэткэчэн, дьэпкэррэн бэил) икэникэн укченгэрэр. Урумкун нимкан – дьэлгэнкэл дюгулиттан, хөнтэ нимкардук гапчал тэлэӈэт.

  Дьэлгэнкэл дюгулиттан нимкар мэнэк сюжетан – кумулятив гөпчэ. Кумулятивнай нимкандула хөнтэкитэн, ӈонмирни өмэн структура бисни: Экспозиция, куиргэ (кумулятив, цепь) ньаан муданни (финал).

  Хамалкабдай нимкалар эӈэелдин дэмӈурдир ичумкелдир куӈалду ичин дюлэп эвэсэл биниттэн. Иӈэнси тор бэилни ургэ условият бинит.   Фольклорач бэлэчэн бинив ичукэниттэн мэн культураттан. Хагди бэил укчэргэрэр хурэлдур нимкам нимканикар.   Дария Михайловна – өтэрэп эвэсэл бинивэттэн хавай бэй. Тарак нимкандула аич ичун. Ноӈан эгдэнь бэлэчэттэн мут эдэт омӈар, эвэсэл-дэ төрэмур.

About the legend of the Evens "The Child and the bird"

Authors:

  • Efimova Vasilina Yuryevna,10th grade student of Topolinsky secondary school of the Tomponsky district of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russian Federation
  • Khristoforova Oktiabrina Semyonovna,head, teacher of fine arts and drawing

Өтэрэптукун нимкапча нимкар

 

  • Гургэ хупкутти 10 класса МБОУ Тополинскай СОШ Томпонскайду райуона Ефимовой Василины Юрьевны
  • Ӈунэмэттен –онян урокан, игадяк хупкучимӈэ
    Khristoforova Oktiabrina Semyonovna,
ANALYSIS OF THE NIMKAN "KUA NYAN CHIVKACHAAN"

 

  A child and a bird

 

In the morning, the child woke up. I heard a bird chirping in a thicket of tallow.
-Чибартан – чи, чи, чи.

  -Chibartan – chi, chi, chi. The child rubs his eyes from sleep, woke up, yawned, stretched, turned back and forth.

  Then I jumped up and went outside for the morning toilet. And I heard the chirping of a bird in the thicket of tallow. I ran there, suddenly a bird flew out in front, sat on a tallow and said:

  - Chip! – turning back and forth, he turns his head and looks.
The child began to creep up to catch the bird with his hands, stretching his arms forward.

  And why should a bird be caught, succumb to it. She took off and flew to another twig and chirped again.
The child looks – he can't get it in any way, no matter how he sneaks up, he won't catch it in any way.

  Then the child speaks, looking at the bird:

  - Little bird, let's go over the log across the river! The bird replied, "I'll fall into the water."
The boy said, "You can hold on to a twig."

  I'll hurt my hand.

  You'll put on your sister's mittens.

  H - The mitten will tear.

  You'll sew it up with your sister's needle.

  H - The tip of the needle will break

  You can sharpen your brother with a bar.

  H - The brother's bar will become smooth.

  W-Where is that bar?

  They left it there, put it in the warehouse.

  W-Where is that warehouse?

  That warehouse burned down in a fire.

  W-Where is that fire?

  The rain put out that fire.

  Where is that rain?

  The cedar tree drank that rain.

  Where is that cedar tree?

  That cedar tree sits on top of a dead tree and looks at all sides. – the bird said so, flew to another reed and sat down.
The child immediately went and caught the bird. He caught it and began to pluck the feathers. The bird asked, "Why does my back hurt?"

  K - plucking the feathers.
The bird asked, "Why is my stomach stinging?"

  K – Plucking your feathers.
Then the boy lit a fire and started roasting the bird.

  Wh- Why is my ass hurt?

  K - Pierced with a sharp needle. Then he began to roast on the flame of the fire.

  W - Why did my breasts get hot?

  K -I'm frying.

  H - Why is half of the side hot?

  He turned his back on me.

  W - Why did the other side get hot?

  K - Turned the other side.

  Wh-What's with the crunch?

  I'm chewing!

  W - Why did it get dark?

  K - Swallowed it.

  W-Why did it get light?

  K - I pooped.

  Then the bird fell to the ground and flew like a live bird. People don't eat the bird now. [PMA]
"Kuӈa nyan chivkachaan" is a cumulative fairy tale

  The main characters of the fairy tale are a boy and a bird. There is also a dialogue between the characters in the fairy tale. Nimkan begins with the boy's awakening and daily activities in the morning. In nimkan, the chain begins when the boy saw a bird and wanted to catch it. The chain of events is a dialogue between two characters, to illustrate with some examples: M: "Bird, let's go across the river on a log", P: "I'll fall into the water." During the dialogue, the boy caught a bird and began to prepare to eat it. The finale of the nimkan is that the bird stayed alive and flew away. People don't eat the bird anymore.

  Эрэв нимкан «Куӈа ньаан чивкачаан» тэрэмкэчкэлдэ.

  Эрэк куиргэ нимканни.

  Дюлэг герояттан куӈаекан, ньаан чивкачаани ноӈартан укченмэчөтта. Нимкандулла дюллэ куӈаекан мяллан ирэв тарав бадикарап очаддан.

  Куиргэ мокибданни ичин куӈаекан иттэн чивкачаанни, тадук укчэннэн ноӈнюн. Хэпкенидьи куӈа долгатми гулунду чивкачам депчэ. Нимканни мудандулэ чивкачаанни арукандан ньаан дэгэллэн. Тиек чивкачаам тивоми эстэн дьэбгэрээр гоникээн укчээнэк оча. «Куӈа ньаан Чивкачаан» дьугулитан укчээнэк.   (Абага укчэнек нимкан Осенин Михаил Михайлович дукрин ньаан төрэн Дария Михайловна).   Бадьикар Куӈакаан мяллакан, хиетакӷла чивкачаан төрэнни иисни. Куӈаякаан ясали хикникаан миеллан, тадук дьавниридьин ньаан гининикэн хумэлдиннэн.

  Тарич хэкэркиӈчиндэ төлээски ньӫрэн, бадьикар ньӫӈкэлэйи хөрридьии ньӫдьдэн. Чивкачаан хиятакаӷла төрэнни иисни. Тартаки тутэллэн арай дьулдээдукун чивкачаан дэгэллэн. Тарич хиетту дооран чиип гӫникэн иртаки- тартаки иӈавлиникан кӫеттэн.   Куӈаякан чивкачаам ньурман дьавдаайи гӫникэн ӈалчаами дюласки хиркумкэникэн гиркан.

  Чивкачаан ядайи дьавукандььии. Хиетаӈ-дукли оӷэски дэгэллэн, дочаки ойдэдун дооран, тарич ньяянда.

  – Чиип гӫнни.

  Куӈаякан кӫеттан ичиндэ эннээи исса өӷилэ дочтан. Ичиндэ ньурмаридии хэпкэндээйи ньэкрэн-дэ, ичиндэ эннээн исса.

  Тарич куӈаякаан гӫнни чивкачаани кӫечникэн.

  – Чивкачаан-таклакачнаагар гӫнни.

  Чивкачаан гӫнни – Мӫлэ кэтэм тикрэ.   Куӈаякаан- гӫнни. – Хияттук кэтээнни наӈтисна.

  Чивкачаан- Ӈалу кэтээн нэбдэррэ.   Куӈа: – Эки кукатмаан кэтэнни тэттэ.

  Чивкачаан – Эки кукатанни кэтээн тэкэррэ.   Куӈа – Эки инмэдьин кэтээнни хаӈаанна.

  Чивкачан – Эки инмэн кэтээн муктарра.   Куӈа – Аки ааӷандьин кэтээнни ааӷнар.

  Чивкачаан- Аки ааӷанни кэтээн чилдуӈэптэ.

  Куӈа – Тарак ааӷан илэ бисни?

  Чивкачаан – Нэкулэ нээкучтэн кэсни.

  Куӈа – Тарак нээку илэ бисни?

  Чивкачаан- Тарак нээку дуриду дуррин.

  Куӈа – Тарак дури илэ бисни ?

  Чивкачан – Тарав дурив удан хиивирин.

  Куӈа- Тарак удан илэ бисни?

  Чивкачаан – Тарав удам оӈалчаан кооласнин.

  Куӈа – Тарак оӈалчаан илэ бисни?

  Чивкаачаан – Тарак оӈалчаан нинкаатандьа хурэйэлээн.

  Ӈоӈноокол-де ӈоӈ-ноокол-де.

  Гоомнин дэгэллэн тарич хӫнтэ хиятту дооран.

  Куӈаякан – Тала ӈэнчидьии чивкачаанни дьэ хэпкэнни.

  Хэпкэнни-дэ инӈатаӈи исэллэн.

  Чивкачаан – улгэмин. -Нириву яму илэрсан (илэрэснэн)?

  Куӈа – Инӈатук иссэм кэсэм.

  Тадук ньаанда чивкачаан улгэмин.

  -Хикэму ями идарасэтнээн?

  Куӈа – Хикээнси инӈатваан иссэм кэсэм.

  Тадук куӈаякан гулуӈай дурудидьи хилачадьаллан.

  Чивкачан – Мукэтэву ями энэснэн?

  Куӈа – Хилундьии хучэснэм кэсэм. Тарич хилачадьаллан гулуми нэргидун.

  Чивкачаан – Хикэму ями хокэллэн?

  Куӈа – Хилачтан кэсэм.

  Чивкачаан – Гаад олдаму ями хокаллэн?

  Куӈа – Хукэснэм кэсэм.

  Чивкачаан – Ньириву ями хокэллэн?

  Куӈа – Олдаандьис хукэснэм кэсэм.

  Чивкачан – Ядук капур капур иисни?

  Куӈа – Ньимӈэрэм кэсэм.

  Чивкачаан – Ями ӈэриснэн?

  Куӈа – Ньоньаснам кэсэм.

  Тадук чивкачаан төрлэ тикридьии, чивкачаан чивкачаандьии дэгэллэн. Тиек чивкачаам тивоми эстэн дьэбгэрээр гӫникээн укчээнэк оча. [ПМА]   Эрэв нимкан мут мультику орит.

  The study of nimkans will enrich and broaden the horizons of children, show what the life of the Evens was like before, what rituals, traditions and culture there were.

  The Northern peoples lived in difficult climatic conditions. With the help of folklore, the people showed their traditional way of life and passed on attitudes, knowledge, and experience to the younger generations.

  Created an animated film based on the fairy tale of Daria Mikhailovna Osenina by Efimova Vasilina, a student of 10 grades, supervisor: Khristoforova O.S., artist: Efimova Vasilina, Khristoforova O.S., translated from Even into Russian by Osenina D.M., Neustroeva M.M., dubbed by Khristoforova M.L.

  The animated film is intended for children aged 6+, for joint the activity of a teacher with children in teaching the Even language. There are two characters in the plot - a child and a bird. There is a dialogue between them in the Even language, words in the Even language are voiced and shown with pictures, for example, rain – udan is voiced with the sound of rain and shown with a picture of rain, etc.

  Daria Mikhailovna Osenina is an expert in oral folk art, customs, and traditions of the Even people. In the nymphs of Daria Mikhailovna Osenina, there is a connection with the historical past of the people, which is important in preserving folk culture.

Literature

  •   "Even nymphs of Darya Mikhailovna Osenina", compiled by Alexandra Lavrillier, Deyan Matic in collaboration with Christina Mikhailovna Zakharova.
  •   Dutkin Christopher Innokentievich. Even folklore: (educational and methodological complex - program, short course of lectures, methodological recommendations, sample texts): a special course for Even students of YSU / Moscow State University. And Prof. Education Grew. Federation, Yakut State University named after M.K. Ammosov.- Yakutsk: Publishing House of YSU, 1996. Issue.1. - 66 p.
  •   Field material of the author: informant Osenina Darya Mikhailovna, 2023.
  •   Propp V.Ya. Cumulative fairy tale // Folklore and reality. Selected articles
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