Хранительница традиций из Анадыря Лариса Выквырагтыргыргына. Она работает в центре этнокультурного образования Чукотского института развития образования и повышения квалификации. Будучи методистом этноязыкового образования, она разрабатывает программы обучения, методические рекомендации для учителей родного языка. Лариса Сергеевна – знаток чукотской культуры.
Chukchi – коренные жители Чукотки, по данным Всероссийской переписи населения 2021 года – 16 200 people, settled on the territory of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (13.6 thousand people). They also live in the north of the Kamchatka Territory (1.4 thousand) and in the Nizhnekolymsky district of Yakutia (0.6 thousand). Self-designation is lygyo ravetlan (лыгъоравэтлъан) which means "real people".
The Chukchi are represented by two ethnographic groups:
- deer Chukchi settle in the continental part of Chukotka and are engaged in reindeer husbandry. Deer Chukchi call themselves chauchu, or chavchu, which means "rich in deer".
- coastal Chukchi (sedentary, walking, seaside) — coastal residents, hunters of sea animals. And they call themselves – ankalyn, ankalyt (coastal).
Язык чукчей по своему происхождению относится к чукотско-камчатской языковой семье и входит в состав палеоазиатских языков. Близкие родственники чукотского языка – корякский, керекский, который к концу 20 века исчез, и алюторский (https://travelask.ru/). Письменность с 1936 г. на основе кириллической графики. Праздники чукчи связывают с хозяйственным циклом: осенний и зимний забой оленей, первый выход в море.There are also regular holidays, which are held depending on the time of year:
- in autumn — deer slaughter day;
- in spring — horns day;
- in winter — sacrifice to the star Altair.
There are also many irregular holidays, for example, fire feeding, commemorations for the dead, votive services and sacrifices after hunting, whale festival, kayak festival. The Chukchi have long been famous for their carved and sculptural images made on mammoth bones, which amaze with their beauty and clarity of application. A harp and a tambourine may used as musical instruments.
The traditional dwelling of the deer Chukchi is yaranga (tent made of reindeer hides). It is a frame building with relatively vertical walls and a conical top. The walls were based on several tripods standing in a circle, which were fastened with horizontal poles. Inclined poles were supported on tripods, forming the roof frame. Yaranga was covered with deer skins. The problem of heat preservation was solved with the help of an additional fur canopy (in the form of an upside-down box) inside a large tent, at the back wall. The canopy was heated by people's breath and heat from a fat lamp, a kettle and boilers with food. Coastal Chukchi lived both in yarangs covered with walrus skins and in capital semi-dugouts with a skeleton made of whale bones.
The basis of the Chukchi diet is boiled meat (deer, seal, whale). Deer Chukchi have deer meat, sea hunters have meat of sea animals. Fish did not play a significant role in the diet. Vegetable food was used as additives to meat.
TV lessons on Even language
‘Yonchaedyae’ project (from the Yukaghir language it means ‘a bell’) took place thanks to the support of a grant from the head of the Rupublic of Sakha (Yakutia) among the media. A total of 200 releases have been prepared, with forty five-minute TV lessons in each language. The project is designed for people who do not speak or have poor command of their native language.
The author and leader of the project is Natalia Smetanina, the director is Nina Kornilova.
We would like to thank the Ministry of Innovation, Digital Development and Infocommunication Technologies of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the Association of Indigenous Minorities of the North of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), National Broadcast Company ‘Sakha’, Joint Stock Company ‘Almazy Anabara’ for support and assistance in the implementation of the ‘Йоҥчэдиэ’ project...
(To view the entire list of Yukaghir language lessons, click )
Телеуроки по чукотскому языку. Жанна Дьячкова